- Macule: Flat area (not identifiable if you palpate it with you eyes closed) of different color than normal skin. Can be any shape. Example: small nevi
- Patch: Same as a macule, but bigger. Example: larger nevi.
- Papule: Small (< 1 cm), solid, raised area. Example: Warts.
- Nodule: Larger (>1 cm), solid, raised area. Example: Basal cell skin cancer.
- Vessicle: Small (<1 cm), fluid filled structures. Exmaple: Coxsackie Virus - hand, foot and mouth dz
- Bullae: Larger (> 1 cm), fluid filled structures. Example: Pemphigus.
- Pustule: Vessicles or blullae that are filled with pus (inflammatory cells - may or may not be infected). Example: herpes zoster.
- Plaques: Solid, elevated areas. Example: Psoriatic plaques.
- Wheals: Raised areas, erythematous or same color as surrounding skin, papules or plaques, lasting < 24h. Example: urticaria.
- Cysts: Large, isolated, structures; contain fluid and sometimes solid material. Example: Sebaceous cyst.
- Scale: Flaky outer layer of dead epidermis, which sheds daily. Example: Psoriasis.
- Crusts: Dried serum and proteinaceous exudate, secreted on top of the primary problem. Example: Impetigo.
- Erosions: Areas of shallow loss of superficial (epidermal) tissue. Example: Apthous ulcers.
- Ulcers: Deeper tissue loss, reaching into the dermis. Example: Venous stasis ulcers.
- Fissures: Linear, often painful, cracks in the skin. Example: atopic dermatits between the fingers, angular chelitis.
- Excoriations: Often linear eroisions caused by scratching. Example: scratches associated with poison ivy, scabies, other puritic processes.
- Pigmentation (colored) or hypopigmentation (absence of color).