HFrEF| CAD

Etiology

  • Progressive atherosclerosis
  • Myocardial infarct is most common cause of HefRef in US

Risk Factors

  • HTN
  • DM
  • Past MI
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Smoking
  • Family history
  • Male
  • Cocaine use
  • Known atherosclerosis

Symptoms

  • SOB, DOE
  • Chest pain, sweating, nausea w/acute ischemia
  • PND and Orthopnea w/CHF
  • Claudication if co-existent PAD

Physical Exam Findings

  • Elevated JVP, crackles on lung exam, distal edema w/CHF
  • Sometimes evidence of distal atherosclerosis: diminished posterior tibialis and dorsalis pedis pulses
  • Delayed capillary refill, cool extremities, distal extremity ulcers

Sub-Diseases