Germ Cell Tumor (Extragonadal)

Etiology

  • 95% of germ cell tumors occur in testes (see link to testicular cancer)
  • 5% occur primarily outside of testes, presumably from germ cells misplaced during embryologic migration to testes
  • Extra-gonadal sites are typically midline: anterior mediastinum (50-60%), retroperitoneum (30-40%), Intracranial, other
  • Germ cell tumors are Seminomas (40%) and Non-seminomas (60%): embryonal, yolk sac, choriocarcinoma, teratoma

Risk Factors

  • Male
  • Klinefelter syndrome (47 XXY)

Symptoms

  • Vary with site
  • Can include: chest pain, SOB, DOE, cough, fever, weight loss, abdominal or back pain

Physical Exam Findings

  • Testicular exam to assess for mass/nodule indicating gonadal primary

Tests

Links