Your Path

  • Bradycardia


  • Sinus node dysfunction: sick sinus syndrome, tachy-brady syndrome
  • Second or third degree AV block, bundle of HIS dysfxn
  • Meds: beta blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, clonidine, other
  • Acute ischemia/MI involving SA, AV node (e.g. RV infarct), post-cardiac surgery (in particular, AVR)
  • Non-cardiac: hypoxemia, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, increased vagal tone, increased ICP
  • Physiologic--> patients with excellent cardiovascular fitness (e.g. distance runners)--> no symptoms or activity limitation


  • Fatigue
  • Sob
  • Decrease exercise tolerance
  • Lightheaded/presycnope/syncope

Physical Exam Findings

  • Bradycardia
  • Sometime chf
  • Sometimes hypotension