Kidney Stones

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  • Kidney Stones


  • Mostly commonly formed and located in kidney
  • Can also be located in ureter, bladder


  • 80% calcium oxalate from hypercalcuria which is usually idiopathic (less commonly from hyperparathyroidism)
  • Others are: struvite→ infxn w/proteus, klebsiella; uric acid (hyperuricemia); oxalate; cystine (rare)
  • Other contributors to stone formation include: low urine output (< 2 l/d), low urine citrate (stone inhibitor)


  • If stone obstructing kidney or ureter: acute colicky pain any where from flank → penis, urinary frequency/urgency, nausea, vomiting, patient cant sit still or find comfortable position
  • Non-obstructing stones can cause painless hematuria
  • Fever, chills, systemic illness if infection occurs behind obstructing stone